Hate Speech

Definition Hatespeech: Speeches of discrimination, hostility and violence, then invocations against people identified with social or demographic groups. Sometimes speeches of incitement to violence are also included, and others that promote a climate of prejudice and intolerance, which can eventually lead to targeted discrimination and violent attacks.

5,189 Tweets examined

the method: sentiment Analysis

1 person out of 10 write discriminating messages

4 out of 10 use the linguistic register of irony to discriminate

of messages expresses ambiguous and scarcely decipherable positions

Which features The Hatespeech?

An offensive message conveys hate speeches, if *:

  1. Use sexist or racist insults
  2. Attacks a minority
  3. Tries to silence the minority
  4. Criticizes a minority (through a judgement that baseless)
  5. incites, without using it directly, Hate Speech or violent crimes.
  6. Criticizes a minority (through fictitious ideas on it)
  7. seeks to distort opinions on a minority through the use of unfounded affirmations
  8. Show support with objectionable hashtags
  9. Stereotyping negatively a minority
  10. Defends xenophobia or sexism
  11. Contains an offensive pseudonym

* “Mapping and analysing hate speech online: When does speech offensive become hate speech?” Gagliardone (2015)


The growing spread of hate speeches occurs more in Social networks and has some peculiar characteristics:

  • Possibility of anonymity: the user, if he wants, can hide behind a fake identity, contravening the social norms as in a liberating act

  • Stay: The written message will remain usable for a long time

  • Pervasive potential: The same message has the possibility of reaching a vast audience becoming the object of different readings and perceptions

  • Itinerant content: Different social platforms can host the same message

  • Transnationality: The phenomenon has worldwide scope, but the regulations on the subject are national, this creates a series of difficulties in managing and curating Hatespeech



Thanks to Valerio Basile (Lecturer University of Turin) and Paola Franco for his contribution with the thesis “Hate Speech against the category LGBTQI”